related to unfamiliar environment, separation from significant others, severity of current condition, and threat of death.

Desired Outcome
The client will experience a reduction in fear and anxiety as evidenced by:
  1. verbalization of feeling less anxious
  2. usual sleep pattern
  3. relaxed facial expression and body movements
  4. usual perceptual ability and interactions with others.
Nursing Actions and Selected Purposes/Rationales
  1. Assess client for signs and symptoms of fear and anxiety (e.g. verbalization of feeling anxious, insomnia, tenseness, shakiness, restlessness, diaphoresis, tachycardia, elevated blood pressure, self-focused behaviors).
  2. Implement measures to reduce fear and anxiety:
    1. orient client to hospital environment, equipment, and routines
    2. introduce client to staff who will be participating in care; if possible, maintain consistency in staff assigned to his/her care
    3. assure client that staff members are nearby; respond to call signal as soon as possible
    4. maintain a calm, supportive, confident manner when interacting with client
    5. encourage verbalization of fear and anxiety; provide feedback
    6. reinforce physician's explanations and clarify misconceptions the client has about his/her current infection, the treatment plan, and prognosis
    7. explain all diagnostic tests and monitoring devices
    8. provide information based on current needs of client at a level he/she can understand; encourage questions and clarification of information provided
    9. encourage significant others to project a caring, concerned attitude without obvious anxiousness
    10. include significant others in orientation and teaching sessions and encourage their continued support of the client
    11. administer prescribed antianxiety agents if indicated.
  3. Consult physician if above actions fail to control fear and anxiety.