perform actions to reduce fear and anxiety about the pain experience (e.g. assure client that his/her need for headache relief is understood, plan methods for relieving headache with client)
perform actions to reduce fear and anxiety (e.g. assure client that staff members are nearby, respond to call signal as soon as possible) in order to promote relaxation and subsequently increase the client's threshold and tolerance for pain
administer analgesics before activities and procedures that can cause headache and before headache becomes severe
perform actions to minimize environmental stimuli (e.g. provide a quiet environment, limit number of visitors and their length of stay, dim lights)
avoid jarring bed or startling client to minimize risk of sudden movements
perform actions to prevent and treat increased intracranial pressure and meningitis (see Postoperative Diagnosis 3, actions B and C in IICP complication and actions C and D in meningitis complication)
provide or assist with nonpharmacologic measures for headache relief (e.g. cool cloth to forehead, progressive relaxation exercises)
administer nonnarcotic analgesics or codeine if ordered (other narcotic [opioid] analgesics are usually contraindicated because they have a greater depressant effect on the central nervous system).
Consult physician if above actions fail to relieve headache.